Russia Golden Ring
In 1967 art historian Yuri Alexandrovich Bychkov by assignment of the newspaper “Soviet culture” traveled through a very specific historical route by car (Moskvich). The itinerary he drove through was a territory of Vladimir Russia, later The Grand Duchy of Vladimir and then Grand Duchy of Moscow. Bychkov worked as editor-in-chief of various publishers and was devoted to Chekhov Museum in Melikhovo. The famous article “Golden Ring of Russia” was published describing eight towns:
Rostov The Great
A year-round route attracts 17.8 million Russian explorers annually. The golden path length is 1000 km, which can be passed either in one or 15 days. One of the main features of the primordially Russian route is the opportunity to trace the main elements of Russian architectural traditions in fortresses, monasteries, and temples. It reveals the best examples of Russian decorative and applied magnificent works of weavers, embroiderers, woodcarvers, and bone carvers, enamel artists, as well as masters of lacquer miniature samples. Scientists assume that icon painting is the most outstanding in the group. Kasimov was officially listed in the Golden Ring in 2015, and Kaluga – next year. The original area of the Ring had homogeneous soils.
Sergiev Posad was previously known as Zagorsk. Named after the righteous Sergius of Radonezh. Amusing fact, but it is widely believed that each spring in Sergiev Posad is healing. Objects of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra in Posad and cathedrals-assumption and Dmitrovsky in Vladimir are on the UNESCO cultural heritage list.
Pereslavl-Zalessky is as Moscow, the birthplace of Alexander Nevsky. Yuri Dolgoruky erected Pereslavl-Zalessky fortress in the XII century.
It is reported that Rostov the Great appeared in 862. Rostov in the X century during Yaroslav the Wise reign turned up to be renowned. It was avowed as a Russian land spiritual center after the baptismal in 988. Travel guides might tell a visitor to catch a fish and whisper as it was once told in a well-known Russian fairy tale:” in my desire… ” (follows the desire). Rostov’s thirteen belfries sound exceptionally magical, even the one that weighs 32 tons. Russian travelers would explore the “Ivan Vasilievich changes…” shooting location.
Yaroslavl’s creator is Yaroslav duke. There are one and a half hundred monuments in the area. The city center is fully presented in the UNESCO List, which has twenty-three Yaroslavl sites.
Kostroma was established in 1152. Kostroma is a recognized flax and birch bark production center also called the “jewelry capital” of the country. There was the name of Rudak Borisov in the Kazan census book (1565-1568), who had silver and iron goods stores. Rudak was originally from Kostroma. The neighboring village with the bright name “Krasnoe” (“red” in Russian) processed silver and gold, using minting, engraving, enamel, filigree. So the jewelry goods were quite identifiable and bear the place of manufacture name. Soon the word “red” – “krasnoe” in Slavic gained second meaning “beautiful” (“red girl”, “red sun”). Krasnoselskaya scan – is a handmade openwork pattern filling made of gold, silver, copper or silvered and gold-plated threads twisted or simply connected together into a wire of two or three.
Ivanovo's foundation date is the 2nd of August, 1871. Built-up under Tsar Alexander II decree to merge Voznesensky Posad and Ivanovo village of Ivanovo-Voznesensk. The Ivanovo renown textile production, linen, and cotton fabric mills were put into operation in 1925-1935. From all corners of the vast country, thousands of female workers flocked here. Afterward, Ivanovo obtained its second name – the brides’ city. Buying famous Ivanovo designer boots is strongly recommended.
Suzdal is a historical reservation with 200 objects. It happened to be the oldest among other Golden Ring cities. The “Tale of Bygone years” wrote about Suzdal in the XI century.
Vladimir is the capital of the Golden Ring of Russia, was founded as a fortress on the banks of the Klyazma river by Vladimir Monomakh in 990. Served as the main residence of Russian metropolitans and the capital of the Central part of the state until the XVI century. It was Andrei Bogolyubsky (Vladimir’s grandson) who contributed to the city both economic and cultural development.
Climate & nature
The cities of the Golden Ring have continental, temperate climate with pronounced seasons of the year. The average annual temperature in the region is +5,2 ° C, the average amount of precipitation is 580 mm. The warmest month is July (+ 18.5 ° C), and the coldest month is February (-7.5 ° C) with an average air humidity of 64.3%. The winter season is quite severe, with temperatures well below freezing point and average snow cover of 62 mm between the end of November and the end of March - early April. Absolute minimum and maximum temperatures: -48 ° C and + 38 ° C, respectively.
The main factors influencing the formation of the local climate are the absence of landscape barriers, large water reservoirs, air masses of the Atlantic Ocean, the Arctic, Central Asia and the Barents Sea. The Atlantic with its marine wet air brings precipitation to the Vladimir, Ivanovo and Kostroma region, as well as warmth in winter and cool air in hot summer months. During the cold season, the anticyclones come from the Barents Sea, causing a sharp drop in temperature (-38 ° C). The advance of warm dry tropical air from the central part of the continent is fraught with the onset of an earlier spring, arid weather, and sometimes unbearable heat of + 38.5 ° C.
Specific air circulation, causing increased cloudiness in the region for 8 months of the year, prevents the passage of sunlight and warming of the soil. For this reason, living organisms receive on average 15% less heat than should correspond to this latitude.
54% of the territory is covered by marshlands and mixed forests (pine, spruce, larch, oak). Brushwoods consists of hazel, honeysuckle, mountain ash, juniper. Sphagnum swamps abound with blueberries and cranberries, as well as evergreen shrubbery (wild rosemary). There are plenty of species inhabiting the territory of the Golden Ring including moose, dappled deer, wild boar, roe deer, wolf and marten. Of the 218 species of birds that inhabit this area the brightest are the black grouse, wood grouses and woodcocks.
Local lakes and rivers are abundant with loach, catfish, pike, roach, as well as sterlet from the sturgeon bloodline listed in the Red Book. From rare species one can also meet here the European bison and Russian desman.
Getting known the Golden Ring of Russia would not be complete without exploring its nightlife. Of course, the complex historical route of the ring requires a carefully planned overnight stays. And it is worth noting that, depending on the purpose of the trip, the company of fellow travelers, the duration and budget of the evening in cities or somewhere between them entertainment programs can have different scenarios.
In the glorious Yaroslavl, there is a club with a very sweet name - Honey. A tempting interior, as well as a chillout zone together with affordable prices will create a special atmosphere to finish an eventful day. Another place that is worth mentioning when talking about the nightlife of Yaroslavl is the Jazz Center, with its inimitable atmosphere and chamber hall. The Center was created and carefully kept by jazz lovers on the initiative of I. Gavrilov. It was him who suggested continuing the tradition of "Jazz on the Volga" festival, founded back in 1979 and organize a cruise jazz-steamer (1975). For the lovers of quality hookah and a cozy atmosphere, Gorchakov Resort is recommended - round-the-clock hookah bar. Another establishment called Склад (Warehouse) boasts of excellent service and exquisite quality of the hookahs. The experts will appreciate the house rule - if the customer does not like the way the hookah was stuffed, it will be redone in the first 10 minutes for free.
The city of Vladimir has a pub with the gangsta name "Крутой Козырек" (Sharp Visor). There is also a kicker and an Xbox, table games and an excellent assortment of crafted beer. The pub organizes themed evenings, and a long bar will please tired travelers. Power Lounge bar - an atmospheric bar in the style of Zen. The main visitors are not coffee, but a long tea ceremony lovers, who appreciate intimate conversations and peaceful smiles.
In the town of Ivanovo make sure to visit Banyan Beatster. This is a youth club with stylish interior and excellent acoustics. In the evening there is a DJ, and in the bar, you will find a wide assortment of alcoholic beverages.
Culture and history info
The Golden ring makes one want to learn the history and traditions of Great Rus, exploring how a small pagan country converted into Christianity and succeeded to become the largest state on the planet. Many years of feudal wars between Russian principalities for the political domination were put to an end with the advance of Genghis Khan's hordes. Surprisingly, several centuries under the firm Mongol rule contributed to Russian lands unification and gradual liberation. The center of power shifted to Moscow, that no longer was subjugated to Mongols, the Grand Duke became a Tsar, and with the rising power and growing territories, a Tsar became an Imperator.
Russia and her people have witnessed a lot of events over the past Millennium, but the sights of the eight cities of the Golden Ring can narrate the history of the Russian statehood development in all its glory.
The town of Sergiyev Posad is located not far from Moscow. The town has around 250 monuments, including 50-functioning churches. The history of SP starts with the foundation of Trinity Monastery by Sergius of Radonezh. Monk Sergei was born in 1314 in a family of pious Rostov boyars and was named Bartholomew. In 1337, 23 years old young man and his brother Stefan withdrew to a forest track in the vicinity of Radonezh in search of solitude, built there a small Church of the life-giving Trinity. The Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius until our days remains the largest Orthodox monastery in Russia.
The other was the story of Pereslavl-Zalessky. The town was established in 1152 by the younger son of Vladimir Monomakh, Yuri Dolgoruky in order to place under control the local tribes. The town suffered repeated destruction between the 1350s and the early 15th century. The town located in the depth of the forests is considered as the place of birth of the Russian fleet. It was in Pereyaslavl where Peter the Great in the times of his childhood built his famous "fun flotilla" on Lake Pleshcheyevo for his own entertainment. There is a small museum that provides a detailed account of Russian fleet history and its development. One of the museums’ main exhibits is Peter’s original model boats.
Rostov The Great is one of the oldest towns in Russia with the first mention in the year 862. It was always a great trading city, had strong ties with Vikings and controlled the trade routes by Volga river. Although shadowed by Moscow on the political field the town remained an ecclesiastic center of utmost importance with the bishops of Rostov gaining the status of archbishops. Rostov’s major landmark is its own Kremlin (fortress) that is proved to be the finest outside of Moscow.
Yaroslavl – the first of Russian towns known to be built on Volga river, second largest town in the 17th century and for a short period time de facto the capital of Moscow principality. A historic part of Yaroslavl is a World Heritage site, standing at the confluence of the Kotorosl and Volga Rivers. The city’s name relates to its founder Yaroslav, who according to the popular story killed bear – a sacred animal for the local tribes that resisted his rule and ordered to lay the foundation of a new city at that place. Later on, a symbolic bear adorned the coat of arms of Yaroslavl.
The first written mention of Kostroma dates back to 1213, though there is evidence that the town was founded 50 years earlier by duke Yury Dolgoruky. Due to its geographical position as the northernmost town in the Grand Duchy of Moscow, Kostroma served as a military outpost and place of retreat for the royal family in the war times when foreign armies besieged Moscow. The growth of the town can also be attributed to the trade ties with Dutch and English merchants in the 16th century through the northern port of Archangel. One of the national heroes known to all Russians is Kostroma’s peasant Ivan Susanin who is a symbol of fierce resistance to foreign invaders. Royal Romanov family regarded Kostroma as a special place for their dynasty. It was here that the first Romanov received a right to the Russian throne in 1612. The city preserved many historical monuments, has an interesting architecture and town planning that was laid by Catherine II herself. She also granted the city a coat of arms, the first city emblem in the history of Russia.