Sochi

Sochi

Sochi

Sochi is the name of the southern capital of Russia, a resort of federal importance, the second-longest city in the world (behind Mexico City, and ahead of another Russian city – Krivoy Rog).
A distinctive feature of Sochi is a real opportunity to combine active winter activities with rest on the beach under the bright sun. By price comparison, only the Turkish resorts can provide similar prices in the spring season. Ski and beach resorts, functioning and accessible throughout the year, can be found in other parts of the world – in France, Monaco, America, Spain, as well as quite exotic places such as New Zealand and the Hawaiian Islands. But how much you will have to pay to spend your holidays there one can only imagine.

More than three and a half thousand square kilometers, which is 4/5 of the total territory of Sochi, are covered with dense vegetation, growing on the lands of protected parks and reserves. Among them is the biosphere Caucasian nature reserve, with its Colchis forests listed in the UNESCO World Heritage List, the National Park and the regional natural reserve. In the Imereti lowland, there is an Olympic park with six main sports venues, built for the 22nd Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games of 2014.

On the crest of the Achishkho mountain, there are the ruins of the medieval fortress Achipse, and near Chemitokvadzhe there is the Godlik fortress, which is more than five centuries old. With the name Godlik a beautiful legend is associated with the love of a rich jigit (macho) to a poor orphan girl, whose marriage was banned by his own brother. The wound of the soul turned the young man in love into the stone, and when his brother learned what he caused he prayed to join his brother in this misfortune. The beautiful girl turned into a river, which to this day flows between two stone brothers.

Sochi is the venue for the Grand Prix phase of Formula 1, KVN show, New Wave and Sea of Beer festivals, film festivals, and, unexpectedly, the place of torture of the titan Prometheus who was tormented day and night by a giant eagle tearing at his liver the will of the supreme god – Zeus. One of the sightseeing points in tourist programs is the Eagle Mountains with the Promethean Rock, where at the foot of the cliffs flows a river with the beautiful name Agura. According to legend, this was the name of the beauty, who took pity of the Titan. She cared for Prometheus until sunset, when Okhyn – a local pagan bloodthirsty god, sends his faithful servants – the eagles to obey the order of the Zeus. Agura was dropped from the cliff so that her tears would beat against the rocks of the gorge, and the chained titan would watch this drama every day. And it was one of the Labours of Hercules to free the Prometheus. Many other myths are associated with the city of Sochi: about two brothers and the beautiful Godlyk, fearless Matseste (translated as “firewater”), who gave her life to open the path to healing water for parents and villagers. There is a legend about the proud elder Mammad, the giant Giorgos.

Sochi received the most significant state support in development as a resort and recreational area in the 1920s. The prototype for the resort was the French Riviera. The Soviet authorities wanted to oppose their analog to the symbol of “capitalist happiness,” and therefore the “pearl of the Black Sea” became a project to embody the prosperity of USSR citizens.

To date, the city has more than two hundred sanatoria, 140 beaches and, of course, the world-famous Sochi Arboretum. Travelers can enjoy unique sensations from visiting those places that have so many legends about, where history is inextricably linked with the rise of city, and where trendy events surrounded by the natural beauty of the virgin green spaces of the Krasnodar Territory.

Climate & nature

Sochi is located at 43 parallels of northern latitude, halfway from the North Pole to the equator. On the same parallel located famous Nice and Cannes, the dazzling Monte Carlo, the industrial center of Canada - Toronto and Russian Vladivostok.
The territory of Russia from the southern coast of the Crimean peninsula to the Caspian region of the Republic of Dagestan enjoys a subtropical climatic zone. As a result, the climate in Sochi is subtropical warm and has the most favorable indicators of the tropical and temperate climatic zones. The main factors for these are the proximity of the sea and high mountains, which serve as a natural barrier that deters the Arctic air masses of anticyclones to influence the weather of the coast. At one time, a warm moist climate contributed to the wide spread of malarial mosquitoes, which were completely exterminated by 1956 thanks to the work of the bacteriologist Sergei Sokolov.
The city is located in the foothills and spurs of the Western Caucasus: the ridges of Alek, Mamaysky, Picket, Bytkha, Ahun, and the mountains of Fisht (2867m), Chugush (3238 m), Pshish (3790 m). The river system includes Sochi, Matsesta, Khost, Mzymta, Peezuaps, Shahe rivers. The snow cover of the slopes of the Greater Caucasus remains from November to June.
The average annual rainfall is 1608 mm, the average annual temperature is + 14.3 ° C, and there are more than 250 sunny days a year. The temperature difference of the lowland and high-mountain plateaus reaches 15 ° C, in the cold season in the Black Sea zone the temperature is + 7 ° C, and from the middle of spring to the end autumn + 18 ° C. The average sea temperature in the summer season is + 24 ° C. By the way, the swimming season can last until November.
The Kolkhid type forests of the Caucasian State Biosphere Reserve and the eternal glaciers on the peaks of the Greater Caucasus, the "Big Thach" nature park and the nature monuments "The Buyniy Ridge", "The Upper River of the Tsitsa" and the "Upper Rivers of Pshekh and Pshekhashkh" since 1999 have been listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites. In March 2017, the Russian government ordered a land plot of 392 hectares on the Lagonaki Plateau near the "Western Caucasus" to be rented to the companies of the ski industry.
83,000 people from the total number of the population of Sochi are engaged in agriculture. Since 1901 tea is grown here. Judah Antonovich Koshman was the first who managed to establish a whole plantation of eight hundred bushes brought from Chakwa. Thanks to the painstaking work of the agronomist, the camellia of China (Camellia sinensis L. - the scientific name of the tea bush) was grown and launched into industrial production in the conditions of the northernmost climate. By the way, one of the most famous connoisseurs of Krasnodar tea is the Queen of Great Britain. Here are grown feijoa, loquat, laurel, hazelnuts, and figs. The main feature of the resort flora is the fact that the territory has not been subject to glaciation and flooding for a long time, thanks to which several hundred endemics (plants peculiar only to a specific geographical area) can be found here, among the main relicts are berry Tis, Colchis Boxwood, Oak Garthvis, Colchic figs and Hmelegrab. Walking through Sochi, you can find palm trees, eucalyptus, poisonous oleander and, of course, magnolias.
 

Климат Сочи бурый медведь

 
 
The fauna of the Sochi National Park includes 79 species of mammals, among which some are listed in the Red Book - a bison (Endemic); Transcaucasian brown bear, tur, forest cat, Caucasian mole (Endemic and Relict), bats from the genus Horseshoe and Long-winged. It is also worth noting a unique insect - a gray mountain Caucasian bee with the longest proboscis (up to 7.2 mm).
Balneological resources of Sochi include thermal mineral springs of sulfide water of Matsesta, saturated with hydrogen sulfide, bromine, and colloidal sulfur; clayey silts of Imereti Bay; carbonic mineral water of Krasnaya Polyana - Chvizhepse.
 
The combination of a number of factors - geographic location, landscape features, climatic conditions and a number of seismological factors- has created exceptional conditions in the city of Sochi for the development of the balneological resort and the tourist industry.
 
Nightlife info
 

Ночной Сочи, фото

 

Nightlife in Sochi will not let you get bored thanks to a variety of choices. Incendiary music, a relaxed atmosphere, and a good mood are guaranteed. The city has a well-developed entertainment industry: nightclubs with famous DJs, Caucasian cuisine colors, multiple bars and casinos.

Culture and history info

 

 

The history of Sochi is tightly woven into the epic of the peoples who inhabited the local territory, whose fates were inextricably linked with navigation and agriculture. From time immemorial, the Black Sea region was a special zone of economic and geo-political interests.

It is difficult to imagine that at the time of Aristotle the Black Sea was considered "Inhospitable". In the writings of the ancient Greek philosopher, evidence was found of human sacrifice and cannibalism among the Black Sea tribes. The age of the earliest finds on the territory of Sochi and parts of Abkhazia is attributed to the Acheulian era - according to various sources from 800 to 120 thousand years ago. There were found campsites with an average area of about 20,000 square meters, the camp of hunters, workshops of artisans. According to the works of Skilak on the Black Sea coast in the region of present days city lived Achaeans (ancient Greek tribes, II millennium BC), who participated in the siege of the famous Trojan War XIII-XII century BC. Another tribe is also associated with the ancient history of Sochi - the tribe of geniokhs - a collective term that unites representatives whose founding industry was piracy and slave trade. Small, lightweight, high-moored Geniokhsk boats were created for sudden sea attacks on merchant ships. The Greeks called them "kamaras". By the Latin ethnonym "zikhi" or "zigi" were called the forefathers of the Abkhaz-Adyghe tribal associations, distinguished by a special militant nature, which, perhaps, served as a kind of "shield" from all-round ancient Greek influence.

A special attention deserves the origin of the city's name "Sochi" with many disputes and theories until now. In the Ubykh language there is the word "descended" - "by the sea", "the sea", but in the first written mention dated 1641 in the papers of the turkish military commander - Elvia Chelebi, the city is called "Socha". «Sachi» - lat. "Sagids", is the name of the tribes inhabiting the coastal zone according to Byzantine sources of the VI-XIV centuries, "Suchi" - the name of the settlement from the Russian map, dated 1723 year. On the other hand, the Adygei sources point to the aul "Shacha", designated on the map of the XIX century. In modern history, 1 July 1833(according to the new style) is considered as the day of city foundation, when the Swiss Frederic Dubois de Montper described in his notes the journey through the Black Sea and mentioned the sea village of Socha. Since 1896 the city will be officially named "Sochi" by the name of the river on whose banks it was built.

According to written sources of 562 AD, the territory of Sochi belonged to Byzantium, as evidenced by a number of buildings of that period - 20 basilicas near Loo. The latter is proof of the widespread here of Orthodox Christianity, which was adopted by the local tribes of Adygs and Shapsugs. The only preserved fortress Mamai-Kale, which was founded by the Romans not earlier than the second century AD can be attributed to the historical and cultural objects of the Middle Ages. At the end of the VII century, an invasion of Arab forces under the command of Murvan-ibn-Muhammad took place but failed to besiege Sukhumi fortress. The reason for this was a sudden outbreak of the plague. The invasion of Timur in 1395 and the Tatar-Mongols шт the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries left an indelible mark on the fate of the local tribes and the local landscape since moving through Derbent to the Northern Caucasus, troops cut down forests and paved roads for food supply. Catholicism will be introduced into the region in the thirteenth century by the Genoese.

 

 

The city of Sochi and its environs were passed to Russian empire under the Adrianople agreement of September 14, 1829. However, for the next 35 years the local population will be fiercely resisting the Russian conquerors, so most of the Abazins, Ubykhs and Shapsugs (Adygs) will be evicted to Anatolia. New Russian territories were inhabited by Ukrainians, Georgians, Armenians, Turkish Greeks, Estonians and other immigrants. The status of the city Sochi acquires in 1917 on July 31, although as Alexandria fort it existed since 1868.

The construction of the Sochi lighthouse was completed in 1892. The first sanatorium - the "Caucasian Riviera" was opened in 1909, during the same period the Riviera Park was laid, for which more than 16 hectares were allocated. As a resort zone Sochi begins to be intensively built up after the revolutionary events of 1917. Large-scale construction of the recreational infrastructure of the city begins in the 1930s.

In 1890 - 1910s the development of the resort town was mostly done in in the style of neo-romanticism (Villa "Vera", the sanatorium "Krasny Sturm"), which is characterized by a mixture of historical style with elements of Art Nouveau, when special attention is paid to the decoration of the facade part of the building. The Pushkin Library and the building of the Treasury on Ordzhonikidze street can be attributed to the style of Art Nouveau.

Sochi could be divided into two parts: the lower one was shopping areas and offices, and the upper one was a sanatorium-business quarter, where the owners of the land were very well-to-do noblemen. For example, initially, on the territory of Sergei Khudekov's estate was located the modern Sochi Arboretum, and at Felix Yusupov's estate the present-day "Luna Park" and the building of the cinema "Stereo".
Sochi has got the name of the "summer cultural capital" for good reason. In the summer season legendary artists, the best theater companies and world-famous orchestras flock to the stages of the Festival complex, Winter and Green theaters. Sochi is a favorite venue for economic forums, international exhibitions, music and film festivals.

To date, the resort city has more than 200 sanatoriums, 138 operating beaches and by the number of registered cars per person Sochi is even ahead of Moscow.