Zheleznovodsk — the smallest & calmest of Caucasian Mineral Waters cities-resorts. Its population is only about 50,000 people. But this is a city with excellent infrastructure despite small size.
Zheleznovodsk resort is open for tourists throughout the year. Annual attendance – about 80,000 people. There are more than 100 historical & architectural monuments. The main attraction — the Pushkin Gallery, a monument of architecture of the beginning of the XX century. Here are the works of outstanding painters, sculptors, graphic. Amazing building — the Palace of Bukhara’s Emir — a beautiful building with minaret, dome and balcony in Oriental style.
Zheleznovodsk is one perfect place for those who like to combine treatment and relaxing holiday surrounded by beautiful nature. Within the city there are 22 sanatoriums, providing large number of medical services. The resort has a special children's sanatoria, clinic, which provides diagnostic or therapeutic care to adults & children.
If you are going hiking require the services of a guide. Some roads were closed several decades ago and move them without the appropriate knowledge and skills is dangerous at least. However, guides offer several interesting and safe routes which will bring a lot of good memories.
In General, if you're a fan of quiet and measured rest with a beneficial effect on health, Zheleznovodsk will suit perfectly for you. Clean air, picturesque nature and healing mineral water with unique composition. Having visited this town only once in life, someone falls in love with it and want to come here again.
Nature & climate
Zheleznovodsk is the most northern city, the smallest in terms of population (25200 in 2016.) and the eco-friendliest. Local soil and water were not exposed to the destructive influence of industrial production, because during the Soviet Union it was fully transferred to the neighboring village Inozemtsevo. On the territory of more than 93 Hectares was opened 24 mineral springs including the hottest where the water temperature reaches 55ºC.
Zheleznovodsk is situated at an altitude from 450 to 650 m in the valley of the rivers Jamal and Kucuk Beshtau rivers in the foothills of the Big Caucasus, in southern, South-Western slopes of the Zheleznaya mountain (851 m). The main mountains, which adjoins the city are the Snake Beshtau, Razvalka, Zheleznaya, Honey (it received such name from a large number of beehives), mountain Kaban & Ostrovica.
Flora is represented by Alpine vegetation: oaks, hornbeams, lindens, ash trees, beeches, and other deciduous trees (more than 1,300 species of plants). The climate is alpine, comparable with Average climatic conditions of the Alps. Summer is not hot, the average temperature is 21 ºC. At night the cool air descends, but winters are not cold. In the forested area, you can meet deer and roe deer. The forest covers more than half of the city area and thereby creates specific conditions – on the one hand, it is a natural barrier from strong winds and snowfalls, and on the other – a source of high humidity. 130 days per year in Zeleznovodsk are foggy.
Tectonic changes that took place long before the first human settlements on the territory of the resort, created its fate. Layers of crystalline rocks destroyed part of the sedimentary strata, thereby giving them access, which is located deeper mineral water access to the surface. Thus, the hot magma and saturated with carbon dioxide healing springs break out at vertical crack with a depth of over one and a half km. Balneal properties of water "Levanovskogo" & "Smirnoff" sources of Zheleznovodsk do not have world analogs.
To this day, the water for treatment procedures is mined from the four main pavilions: the Western, Lermontov, Smirnoff (38-40 ° C) and Slavyanskogo, access to which is open daily. Visitors say that the taste and smell of a big part of the healing waters resemble rusty iron. For better digestion, it is recommended to do walks through the local path.
The city has a well-developed entertainment industry. If walks and sightseeing annoyed, visit a cinema, entertainment complex or water park. For nightlife lovers, it may seem that they have never left the big modern city. This small resort town possesses enough nightclubs and bars, offering visitors entertainment for every taste.
In numerous cafes & restaurants of Sochi, many interesting dishes are served available in this area. Kitchen – mainly Caucasian, but with its special taste and flavor.
Culture and history
Prehistoric man’s traces in the valley of the rivers Kucuk Beshtau and Jamal (modern painting) was found by archaeologists at a height of 926 m on the slopes of one of the nearby mountains. At the peak of the mountain massif, «Razvalka» remained the walls of the settlement of Alans tribe.
The history of Zheleznovodsk site dates back to Peter I, who in 1717 ordered to investigate "the key water, which can treat diseases." Later in the XVIII century, the Russian Academy of Sciences researched for mineral waters with scientist Guldenstadt and Jacob Reineggs, first published a brief entry about sources.
After 1803, when CMS was recognized as the "most important therapeutic area," more thorough research of the sources began the german doctor Haas.
It is known that in 1820 A. S. Pushkin bathed here in the pit, enclosed by a fence because this area had not been landscaped yet. After the orders of General Yermolov starts a major construction of a new health resort, was conducted water and sanitation. In 1897 appeared a dead-end branch of the railway with a length of seven kilometers. Pyatigorsk Central hydroelectric power plant (the first industrial hydropower plant, White coal), built in the outskirts of Essentuki in 1903, supplied electricity to the growing city. In five years began to work the first industrial plant for bottling of Zheleznovodsk mineral water in glass bottles. Kazenaya, the first local hotel with 120 beds was opened in 1903. During the period from 1921 to 1927, 13 sanatoriums were established.
Nowadays there are 22 modern resorts that received annually more than eighty thousand tourists per year.
Familiarity with cultural part of the city is proposed to start from Lenin square, a cascading staircase leads to the Medical Park. On the territory of sanatorium named after Telman is one of the three most beautiful buildings in the city - Palace of Bukhara Emir (1912). However, the owner chose not to live in his "summer cottage", was spotted in the death of one of the builders a bad sign. Next, a third landmark building - Ostrovskiy bath building near station that is executed in Indian style. In the list of Sochi sights - the house in which Mikhail Lermontov spent the last night before duel with Martynov, cave of summer permafrost, the top of the mountain Beshtau.
Huge forest with variety of trails, breathtaking scenery, paths, picturesque lake, surrounded by mountains Snake & Razvalka, like "Little Switzerland",– everything is peaceful and chamber Zheleznovodsk.